A rather simple and funny way to remember the difference between them is as follows. No need to credit us when using this unless they find it really funny, in which case you should send them to the site.
Artificial Intelligence is when your computer can beat you at chess.
Machine Learning is when your computer detects and filters all of your email spam.
Deep Learning is when your computer recognizes cats.
But seriously, probably one of the best explanations of how artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning relate to each other.
A few quick points, Artificial Intelligence, is the field, Machine Learning is a sub-segment of AI, and Deep Learning is a further sub-segment of Machine Learning.
Machine Learning can be either supervised or unsupervised. Deep learning is always unsupervised and requires a more extensive set of data to be trained. If you want to read a bit more on how each of them works more in-depth, you can check out the AI section.